The tips of walking sticks

The tips of walking sticks

The tips of walking sticks are also made of tungsten carbide, to have a good grip on hard rocks and because of the wear resistance.

The tips of walking sticks are also made of tungsten carbide, to have a good grip on hard rocks and because of the wear resistance.

Crystal (also called crystal glass) is a material that consists of glass with a percentage of lead (II) oxide.

Clear lead crystal glass was first produced on an industrial scale in 1676 by the English glassmaker George Ravenscroft.

Glass consists of a mixture of silicon dioxide, the main component of quartz sand and metal oxides. By heating it, it melts into a thick substance that is easy to form and hardens by cooling.

From a scientific point of view, crystal glass is not a crystal. As with ordinary glass, the molecules are not arranged in an orderly manner in a crystal structure, but form an amorphous solid.

Unsaid Library makes it possible to express your emotions using beautiful pieces of jewelry. Unsaid Library combines the most intens emotions with the most beautiful bracelets, rings, necklaces and pendants. You can find more of this on the website of Unsaid Library.

According to an EU directive from 1969, crystalline glass is the general description for glassware containing metallic oxide, but there are several categories within that description. Only the more luxurious versions must contain lead: 24% for lead crystal and 30% for full lead crystal. For the lower categories of crystalline glass and sonorous glass, 10 per cent metal is sufficient.

This does not have to be lead, zinc oxide, barium oxide or potassium oxide is also good. If it contains more than 30 percent lead, it is lead crystal, like Swarovski (about 32 percent lead). The higher the lead content, the higher the refractive index. A material with a high refractive index shows more brilliance and has a richer colour spectrum.

Glass with a high lead content is used in the nuclear industry, because it has better X-ray and gamma radiation retention than normal glass.

A mineral is a compound or single substance, which occurs as a solids in the wild and is formed by geological processes. The science that studies minerals is called mineralogy; mineralogy has interfaces with chemistry: both scientific disciplines investigate the composition of minerals.

Unsaid Library makes it possible to express your emotions using beautiful pieces of jewelry. Unsaid Library combines the most intens emotions with the most beautiful bracelets, rings, necklaces and pendants. You can find more of this on the website of Unsaid Library.

Minerals are often recognised in the field by their crystalline form, their colour, their stripe colour (the colour they give off when scratched), their hardness, their melting behaviour, their association with other minerals, and so on. This classic macroscopic form of recognition requires a lot of experience and is not always reliable. In geology, therefore, more and more reliance has been placed on retrospective analysis of optical properties other than colour, especially through polarisation microscopy (light microscopy with polarised light), X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, electron beam microanalysis (electron microprobe) and atomic absorption spectrometry. In some cases, infrared analysis is applied.

A rock or the mutual claws of a rock consist of one or more minerals or mineraloids. These determine the properties of the rock: the colour, the hardness, how easily the rock wears off, etc. Mineraloids are inorganic natural materials that do not have an ordered chemical structure, such as opal or chalcedony. Minerals are all solid, inorganic natural materials that have an ordered chemical structure, a crystal lattice. The most common minerals are called rock-forming minerals. Examples of rock-forming minerals are quartz, calcite, feldspar, amphiboles, mica’s, pyroxenes and olivine. Most rocks consist for more than 90% of at most three or four of these minerals. Usually, small amounts of other minerals are also present.

Each mineral has its own unique chemical composition and internal structure, with which the atoms are arranged within the crystal lattice. The crystal lattice determines the shape and fission of the crystals that make up the mineral. In some crystal lattices the atoms are closer together than in others, these minerals are denser. Minerals with the same chemical composition are called polymorphs. Diamond, for example, is a polymorph of graphite, both minerals consist of pure carbon, but diamond has a denser crystal structure. Under high pressure, graphite can convert to diamond, such a transition from one polymorphic to another is called a phase transition.

Unsaid Library makes it possible to express your emotions using beautiful pieces of jewelry. Unsaid Library combines the most intens emotions with the most beautiful bracelets, rings, necklaces and pendants. You can find more of this on the website of Unsaid Library.

Chemical composition
Which minerals are present in a rock depends in the first place on the chemical composition of the rock. A rock that contains enough silica (SiO2, the oxide of the element silicon) may contain quartz or another mineral consisting of pure silica. The rock-forming minerals consist almost exclusively of nine elements (silicon, sodium, potassium, aluminium, oxygen, hydrogen, iron, magnesium and calcium).

https://www.unsaidlibrary.com